Tailoring aPlasmodium vivaxVaccine To Enhance Efficacy through a Combination of a CSP Virus-Like Particle and TRAP Viral Vectors
Atcheson E., Bauza K., Salman AM., Alves E., Blight J., Viveros-Sandoval ME., Janse CJ., Khan SM., Hill AVS., Reyes-Sandoval A.
<jats:title>ABSTRACT</jats:title><jats:p>Vivax malaria remains one of the most serious and neglected tropical diseases, with 132 to 391 million clinical cases per year and 2.5 billion people at risk of infection. A vaccine against<jats:named-content content-type="genus-species">Plasmodium vivax</jats:named-content>could have more impact than any other intervention, and the use of a vaccine targeting multiple antigens may result in higher efficacy against sporozoite infection than targeting a single antigen. Here, two leading<jats:named-content content-type="genus-species">P. vivax</jats:named-content>preerythrocytic vaccine candidate antigens, the<jats:named-content content-type="genus-species">P. vivax</jats:named-content>circumsporozoite protein (PvCSP) and the thrombospondin-related adhesion protein (PvTRAP) were delivered as a combined vaccine. This strategy provided a dose-sparing effect, with 100% sterile protection in mice using doses that individually conferred low or no protection, as with the unadjuvanted antigens PvTRAP (0%) and PvCSP (50%), and reached protection similar to that of adjuvanted components. Efficacy against malaria infection was assessed using a new mouse challenge model consisting of a double-transgenic<jats:named-content content-type="genus-species">Plasmodium berghei</jats:named-content>parasite simultaneously expressing PvCSP and PvTRAP used in mice immunized with the virus-like particle (VLP) Rv21 previously reported to induce high efficacy in mice using Matrix-M adjuvant, while PvTRAP was concomitantly administered in chimpanzee adenovirus and modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) vectors (viral-vectored TRAP, or vvTRAP) to support effective induction of T cells. We examined immunity elicited by these vaccines in the context of two adjuvants approved for human use (AddaVax and Matrix-M). Matrix-M supported the highest anti-PvCSP antibody titers when combined with Rv21, and, interestingly, mixing PvCSP Rv21 and PvTRAP viral vectors enhanced immunity to malaria over levels provided by single vaccines.</jats:p>