Endothelial dysfunction promotes the transition from compensatory renal hypertrophy to kidney injury after unilateral nephrectomy in mice
Nagasu H., Satoh M., Kidokoro K., Nishi Y., Channon KM., Sasaki T., Kashihara N.
<jats:p> Loss of functional nephrons associated with chronic kidney disease induces glomerular hyperfiltration and compensatory renal hypertrophy. We hypothesized that the endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) [soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC)] protein kinase G (PKG) pathway plays an important role in compensatory renal hypertrophy after unilateral nephrectomy. Analysis of mice subjected to unilateral nephrectomy showed increases in kidney weight-to-body weight and total protein-to-DNA ratios in wild-type but not eNOS knockout (eNOSKO) mice. Serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen increased after nephrectomy in eNOSKO but not in wild-type mice. Furthermore, Bay 41–2272, an sGC stimulator, induced compensatory renal hypertrophy in eNOSKO mice and rescued renal function. The NO donor S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO) and Bay 41–2272 stimulated PKG activity and induced phosphorylation of Akt protein in human proximal tubular cells. GSNO also induced phosphorylation of eukaryotic initiation factor 4E-binding protein and ribosomal protein S6. Our results highlight the importance of the eNOS-NO-PKG pathway in compensatory renal hypertrophy and suggest that reduced eNOS-NO bioavailability due to endothelial dysfunction is the underlying mechanism of failure of compensatory hypertrophy and acceleration of progressive renal dysfunction. </jats:p>