A systematic review of Hepatitis B virus (HBV) prevalence and genotypes in Kenya: Data to inform clinical care and health policy
Downs LO., Campbell C., Yonga P., Githinji G., Ansari MA., Matthews PC., Etyang AO.
The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis is to evaluate available prevalence and viral sequencing data representing chronic hepatitis B (CHB) infection in Kenya. More than 20% of the global disease burden from CHB is in Africa, however there is minimal high quality seroprevalence data from individual countries and little viral sequencing data available to represent the continent. We undertook a systematic review of the prevalence and genetic data available for hepatitis B virus (HBV) in Kenya using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-analysis (PRISMA) 2020 checklist. We identified 23 studies reporting HBV prevalence and 8 studies that included HBV genetic data published in English between January 2000 and December 2021. We assessed study quality using the Joanna Briggs Institute critical appraisal checklist. Due to study heterogeneity, we divided the studies to represent low, moderate, high and very high-risk for HBV infection, identifying 8, 7, 5 and 3 studies in these groups, respectively. We calculated pooled HBV prevalence within each group and evaluated available sequencing data. Pooled HBV prevalence was 3.4% (95% CI 2.7–4.2%), 6.1% (95% CI 5.1–7.4%), 6.2% (95% CI 4.64–8.2) and 29.2% (95% CI 12.2–55.1), respectively. Study quality was overall low; only three studies detailed sample size calculation and 17/23 studies were cross sectional. Eight studies included genetic information on HBV, with two undertaking whole genome sequencing. Genotype A accounted for 92% of infections. Other genotypes included genotype D (6%), D/E recombinants (1%) or mixed populations (1%). Drug resistance mutations were reported by two studies. There is an urgent need for more high quality seroprevalence and genetic data to represent HBV in Kenya to underpin improved HBV screening, treatment and prevention in order to support progress towards elimination targets.