Autoimmune encephalitis refers to a group of disorders characterised by a non-infectious encephalitis, often with prominent seizures and surface neuronal autoantibodies. AE is an important cause of new-onset refractory status epilepticus in humans and is frequently responsive to immunotherapies including corticosteroids, plasma exchange, intravenous immunoglobulin G and rituximab. Recent research suggests that parallel autoantibodies can be detected in non-human mammalian species. The best documented example is leucine-rich glioma-inactivated 1 (LGI1)-antibodies in domestic cats with limbic encephalitis (LE). In this review, we discuss the role of neuroinflammation and autoantibodies in human and feline epilepsy and LE.
Veterinary journal (London, England : 1997)
Oxford Autoimmune Neurology Group, Nuffield Department of Clinical Neurosciences, University of Oxford, OX3 9DU, UK; Department of Neurology, John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford University Hospitals Foundation Trust, Oxford OX3 9DU, UK. Electronic address: email@example.com.