A matched cohort study investigating premature, accentuated, and accelerated aging in people living with HIV
Gooden TE., Wang J., Zemedikun DT., Taylor S., Greenfield S., Manaseki-Holland S., Nirantharakumar K., Thomas GN.
Introduction: The impact of HIV infection on the aging process is disputed and largely unknown. We aimed to identify whether people living with HIV experience premature, accelerated, and/or accentuated aging by investigating the development of four age-related non-communicable diseases in people living with versus without HIV. Methods: This population-based matched cohort study design used UK-based primary care electronic health records from the IQVIA Medical Research Database. Between January 2000 and January 2020, all people living with and without HIV aged ≥18 years were eligible. Outcomes included cardiovascular disease (CVD), hypertension, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), and chronic kidney disease (CKD), which were identified by Read codes. We used age at diagnosis to investigate premature aging and age at exit date to investigate accentuation and acceleration. For each outcome, people with and without HIV were excluded if they had the outcome of interest at baseline. Participants were matched based on propensity scores (1:1 ratio). Linear regression was used to report any difference in age at diagnosis between the two groups and to report the prevalence trends for age at exit date. Results: In total, 8880 people living with HIV were matched with 8880 people without HIV and were found to have an earlier onset of CVD (54.5 vs. 56.8; p = 0.002). Similarly, people living with HIV had an earlier onset of hypertension (49.7 vs. 51.4; p = 0.002). No difference was found for T2DM or CKD (53.4 vs. 52.6; p = 0.368 and 57.6 vs. 58.1; p = 0.483, respectively). The burden of CKD increased over time, whereas no difference in the burden was found for the other conditions. Conclusion: The earlier development of CVD and hypertension in people living with HIV than in those without HIV indicates premature aging, whereas the increased burden of CKD indicates accelerated aging.