Light to moderate coffee consumption is associated with lower risk of death: a UK Biobank study.
Simon J., Fung K., Raisi-Estabragh Z., Aung N., Khanji MY., Kolossváry M., Merkely B., Munroe PB., Harvey NC., Piechnik SK., Neubauer S., Petersen SE., Maurovich-Horvat P.
AimsTo study the association of daily coffee consumption with all-cause and cardiovascular (CV) mortality and major CV outcomes. In a subgroup of participants who underwent cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging, we evaluated the association between regular coffee intake and cardiac structure and function.Methods and resultsUK Biobank participants without clinically manifested heart disease at the time of recruitment were included. Regular coffee intake was categorized into three groups: zero, light-to-moderate (0.5-3 cups/day), and high (>3 cups/day). In the multivariate analysis, we adjusted for the main CV risk factors. We included 468 629 individuals (56.2 ± 8.1 years, 44.2% male), of whom 22.1% did not consume coffee regularly, 58.4% had 0.5-3 cups per day, and 19.5% had >3 cups per day. Compared to non-coffee drinkers, light-to-moderate (0.5-3 cups per day) coffee drinking was associated with lower risk of all-cause mortality [multivariate hazard ratio (HR) = 0.88, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.83-0.92; P ConclusionCoffee consumption of up to three cups per day was associated with favourable CV outcomes. Regular coffee consumption was also associated with a likely healthy pattern of CMR metrics in keeping with the reverse of age-related cardiac alterations.