Update on biomarkers for the detection of lung cancer.
Jantus-Lewintre E., Usó M., Sanmartín E., Camps C.
Patients at risk for lung cancer may have subclinical disease for years before presentation. The diagnosis of this disease is primarily based on symptoms, and detection often occurs after curative intervention is no longer possible. At present, no lung cancer early-detection biomarker is clinically available. This study reviews the most recent advances in early detection and molecular diagnostic biomarkers for the detection of lung cancer. This review includes an overview of the various biological specimens and matrices in which these biomarkers could be analyzed, as well as the diverse strategies and approaches for identifying new biomarkers that are currently being explored. Several novel and attractive biomarker candidates for the early detection of lung cancer exist. A remarkable shift is taking place from research based on single markers to analyzing signatures that are more complex in order to take advantage of new high-throughput technologies. However, it is still necessary to validate the most promising markers and the standardization of procedures that will lead to specific clinical applications.